Presented at the July 2003 International MUFON Symposium in Dearborn, Michigan, July 4, 5, 6, 2003. Visit www.mufon.com for more information.
ENIGMATIC MYSTERIES AND ANOMALOUS ARTIFACTS OF NORTH AMERICA: A CONNECTION TO THE ANCIENT PAST
Mysterious and often inexplicable remnants of civilization's history fascinate scientists and archaeologists. People travel worldwide to visit such sites, yet some of the most enigmatic artifacts and structures have been found right here in North America. Unfortunately, because these records do not fit within accepted academic models of human history, they remain unexplained mysteries, and most people never hear of them.
Long before any humans were supposed to be on this continent, unknown hands removed millions of pounds of copper from mines near Lake Superior.
Giant people as tall as 12 feet were buried in Arizona, Nevada and the Midwest.
A three-foot-high adult mummy was discovered in Wyoming.
Sandaled feet made footprints in rock at least 300 million years old in Utah.
A human-like tooth,three times normal size, was found in coal from a Montana mine.
According to modern wisdom, humans evolved on Earth no earlier than two million years ago. Yet many of these artifacts were made long before then. How can this be? Could any of these anomalies have been the result of an advanced civilization once present on our planet?
This book presents the evidence that there have been intelligent beings on earth long before humans are thought to have evolved here. Explore these intriguing possibilities and more in this exciting and informative investigation into the mysteries and anomalous artifacts of North America.
Tedd St. Rain, author, lecturer, and videographer, he has traveled the world extensively investigating the worlds ancient mysteries and enigmas, actively researching the mysterious, the metaphysical and the mythical. Born in Long Beach, California, Tedd is the owner of Lost Arts Media that publishes, markets and distributes fascinating and educational books, videos and multimedia products to help inform, enlighten and inspire humanity.
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The above book is also on DVD and videotape from the 2003 MUFON International Symposium for $20.00 plus shipping (book and DVD or video plus shipping totals $36.95). In this presentation St. Rain uses over 100 slides in less than 60 minutes to display some of the strange evidence from our prehistoric past:
On VHS Video:
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MYSTERYOF AMERICA: BOOK1 ENIGMATIC MYSTERIES AND ANOMALOUS ARTIFACTS OF NORTH AMERICA:
A CONNECTION TO THE ANCIENT PAST
CONCEPT, RESEARCH, LAYOUT AND DESIGN
Tédd St. Rain
Table of Contents
Deep Within The Archives
There Were Giants on the Earth
The Lovelock Giants
Unusual Teeth and Bone Structures
A Race of Dwarfs
Ancient Mining Activity
Underground Caverns and Tunnel Systems
The Cogstones of the Topanga Culture
Roman Relics of Arizona
Elephant Slabs of New Mexico
Stairway to Nowhere
Footprints in Stone
The Coso Geode
Our Cataclysmic Past
They All Discovered America
Unusual Stone Structures
Cahokia Mound Complex
The Mima Mounds
The Devils Playground
Individual Works Cited
Other Works Cited (by State)
Recommended Reading and Authors Cited
Lost Arts Media Catalog
MYSTERYOFAMERICA: BOOK 1
ENIGMATIC MYSTERIES AND ANOMALOUS
ARTIFACTS OF NORTH AMERICA:
A CONNECTION TO THE ANCIENT PAST
Presented by Tédd St. Rain
The exact contrary
of what is generally
believed is often the truth.
Jean de la Bruyere
There are many people today who take a great interest in our past and our history as a civilization. The planet on which we live has a number of mysterious and often enigmatic remnants and artifacts that continue to baffle many scientists and archaeologists. There is a recurring theme that many of the ancient relics have in common, that of being of such unwieldy proportions or sophistication, it is hard to believe that primitive human hands alone could have fashioned them. What we do know of the first recorded civilizations indicates they had a high degree of sophistication (even by todays standards) in many of the fledging arts and sciences we take for granted. These include the development of and expertise in agriculture, writing, mathematics, cosmology, weights and measures, contracts, education, justice, time reckoning, the Zodiac, art, metallurgy, sculpture and painting, amongst many others.
Modern-day research and scholarship have revealed some interesting details of these ancient civilizations that may explain the nearly instantaneous rise of civilization nearly 6,000 years ago (See Sitchin, Freer, Gardner and others in the bibliography). There is mounting evidence that an extraterrestrial influence may have shaped mankinds early history and may even be responsible for our very existence.
When one considers ancient mysteries of the world what frequently comes to mind are romantic images of the pyramids of Egypt and Mexico, the crumbling walls of Babylon, and of Greece and Rome, the ruins of Baalbek, the remnants of a lost civilization in the Andes, and many others. People travel all over the world to visit places such as these, and yet some of the most perplexing, enigmatic and profound artifacts and structures have been found right here in North America. It is unfortunate that few people outside of certain circles have heard of these incredible archaeological finds. This book (and companion lecture on Video and DVD) will present evidence supporting the notion that there may have been "others" who have come before us. "Others" who have either left, died out, or have returned from elsewhere, possibly as the modern UFO phenomenon.
DEEP WITHIN THE ARCHIVES
A large mountain of evidence available from literary and other sources is available to support the hypothesis that something strange has occurred in the remote past on this planet. Unfortunately, most of the so-called "reputable" institutions have been more interested in piecing together mankinds historical record than in understanding the significance of the rare and unusual artifacts that from time to time come to their attention. Of much greater concern is the methodical and systematic way in which the authorities and powers-that-be have hidden the truth, oftentimes suppressing evidence that would revise the early history of America, and in many notable cases would completely rewrite the record, and mankinds place in it, on this planet.
The legendary Vatican archives are an excellent example. There is no doubt that the libraries and storehouses on and below the grounds of the less-than-a-square-mile sovereign republic known as Vatican City contain a wealth of information about mankinds past. The Vatican library is renowned the world over for its extensive collection on every subject conceivable. There are even rumors of hidden passageways and secret vaults used as safe storage for some of the most incredible curios imaginable. After two millennia of acquisitions, in all likelihood the most unusual of the unusual lie within its walls, literally containing the "secrets of the ages." Astounding artifacts which, if were made public, would revise our understanding and shine the torch of illumination on the complicated history of both the old and new worlds.
The archives of the Smithsonian Institution certainly rival those of the Vatican, in quantity, if not in depth and scope. The Smithsonian Institution was created when its namesake, British scientist James Smithson, bequeathed that his estate should go "to the United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men." The motives behind Smithsons bequest remain mysterious. He never traveled to the United States and seems to have had no correspondence with anyone here.
It should come as no surprise as to how many of the objects described in the literature and acquired by the Smithsonian have become "lost" or "unaccounted for." Many times they acknowledge having received an object, but its present location is unknown, or there is some other problem, as in a notable case from the Crumf Burial Cave. In 1892, there were several wood coffins that had been hollowed out by fire, aided by stone or copper chisels, discovered in a cave near Birmingham, Alabama. Eight of these coffins were reportedly taken to the Smithsonian, which in the 1950s claimed they had "not been able to find the specimens in our collection, though records show that they were received." Later, in 1992, the Smithsonian told the President of the Gungywamp Society, David Barron, that the coffins could not be viewed because they were housed in an asbestos-contaminated warehouse that would be closed for the next ten years, and which no one was allowed into except Smithsonian personnel. It would be interesting to know where the coffins are now.
Over the past nearly couple hundred years the Smithsonian has played a part in many of the archaeological finds in North America, sometimes accepting material after no one else knew what to do with it. As a result they have collected over a million artifacts, only a small number of which are available for public viewing. Because of this involvement, they have become the main storehouse for many of the obscure and hard-to-explain rarities uncovered on American soil. In addition to the Smithsonian, many colleges and universities, among them the University of Pennsylvania, University of Chicago and the University of California, were involved and thus claimed the booty, from many of the 19th and 20th century discoveries. Amongst these various archives, institutions, and museums, open only to a select few, lie human-like remains dug up over the past several centuries. Within the literature exists reference to many of these finds, a number of which refer to burials of humans that would be considered giants by todays standards. While many of these interments were the result of "mound builder" activity, primarily from the Adena, Hopewell and Mississippian cultures, there have been several notable exceptions where the remains most likely predate any historical habitation in the area.
THERE WERE GIANTS ON THE EARTH
There have been a number of modern-day giants, such as the Swans, a happily-married giant couple from around the turn of the century. What concerns us most, however, is any number of enigmatic oversized skeletons unearthed in America.
In a classic example of mound builder activity, an article1 reports that near Brewersville, Indiana, a stone mound more than 70 feet in diameter was excavated, in 1879, which contained skeletons, at least one of which was over nine and half feet tall. At its feet was a human image of burned clay embedded with pieces of flint. Weapons that had been buried nearby were not common to Native Americans in the area. The excavation was supervised by Indiana State archaeologists, and others from the neighborhood states of New York and Ohio. In an affirmation to the lackadaisical attitude of such discoveries in the past, the artifacts were kept in a basket near the Robinson family grain mill, on whose property they had been found. Unfortunately, in 1937 a flood swept the mill away and with it the contents of the basket, which has never been seen since.
Some of the other "giants" which have been found in North America are much more problematic. There are many burials where the nature and characteristics of the burial indicate the skeletal remains are of an uncommonly old age. Take for instance the discovery in a small now-abandoned town southeast of Tucson, Arizona, called Crittenden. According to newspaper accounts2 at the time, there was an astounding discovery which, if it is true, could entirely reshape how we view our past. In 1891, while workmen were digging a basement for a commercial building they made a startling discovery. About eight feet below the surface they discovered a large clay-stone sarcophagus. The contractor then called in expert help, and when they opened it they found a granite mummy case which once held the body of a human-like being more than twelve feet tall. The mummy had worn long hair and a bird-shaped headdress, possibly of an Egyptian motif. Apparently the body had been buried for so many thousands of years that the bones had turned to dust, but inscriptions on the outside of the mummy case indicate that the being had six toes. We must all take reports like this, as we do everything in life, with a grain of salt. Keeping in mind that some of the less scrupulous newspapers of the day would think up stories such as this to fill out the columns. The fact that the alleged discovery it is not an isolated one, and that similar finds can be found throughout North America, does seem to support this report.
THE LOVELOCK GIANTS
Another famous discovery of oversized human remains was first reported3 in 1911, when miners harvesting bat guano at Lovelock Cave (about 80 miles northeast of Reno, Nevada) discovered the skeleton of a large mummified human skeleton. The unusual thing about this particular find, besides its excessive height and the extraordinarily large human skulls, was the fact that the remains showed evidence of red hair and was unlike any Indian known to have lived in North America.
As the workers continued mining past the four-foot level, they continued to discover mummies. A mining engineer and amateur archaeologist, John T. Reid, immediately reported the discovery to numerous colleges and institutions, including the University of Pennsylvania and the Smithsonian Institution. He offered them the opportunity to examine the artifacts as they were being removed from the screens of the mining equipment. Unfortunately, it was over a year before the University of California sent a "non-professional observer," by which time the miners had all but disposed of nearly all the bones and other related artifacts.
Another "observer" who had come later from New York, had accompanied the first man in his observation of the site. What became especially puzzling was that these men went out of their way to avoid examination of the bones, and at one point, even insisted on the reburial of a complete skeleton that had just been unearthed. Instead, they focused their investigation primarily on pottery shards, fragments of basketry, and the like. It is no surprise that it took 17 years, in 1929, before their findings were published, and then, only in a small article from California. Understandably, Reid became disillusioned with the establishment, and began to document the discoveries as best he could. Many of the testimonials he collected, as well as his personal memoirs, and some baskets and beads from the area can be found in the Nevada State Historical Society library and museum at 1650 North Virginia Street, Reno, NV 89503.
After the refusal of "establishment science" to make a serious investigation into the matter, local Lovelock residents set up makeshift exhibits of the more impressive finds. As has been the case many times with priceless relics of our past, a devastating fire at one of these displays ended up destroying much of what remained.
There have been reports of other oversize skeletons turning up in the area. Skeletons were found in February and June of 1931 in the Humboldt lake bed near the cave. One of these was said to have been wrapped in an Egyptian-like gum-covered material and was about eight and a half feet tall, while another, stood nearly ten feet tall. Another report in the 29 Sep 1939 Review Miner tells of a seven-foot-seven-inch skeleton that was found on the Friedman Ranch in the vicinity. As a result of the long series of battles that took place in the area, there may still be quite a few undiscovered finds that would be superficially buried, especially in the area of Carson sink, specifically around the south shore and near Pelican Island. Also, a few miles southwest of Lovelock along the railroad, near Perth, is a gravel pit that has yielded artifacts and mummies. Local Indians claim that artifacts have been found in caves near the Pyramid Lake Reservation about 55 miles to the west.
According to Reid, Indians had told him of petrified giants they had found lying in the open wilderness area to the south of Lovelock Cave. In fact, the local Piute Indians spoke of a race of red-headed giants and the bloody conflict that their forefathers had pursued against them. So ferocious was the Piute abomination toward these Si-Te-Cahs, or "lanky redheads," that a collective crusade to wipe them out was organized by local tribes that were normally at odds with one another. A book published in 1882, Life Among the Paiutes, written by Sarah Winnemucca details the strange legends of red-haired giants who had come to the area by boat, apparently when the area was an inland sea. Twentynine years later the cache of oversized skeletons and artifacts in Lovelock Cave were discovered. As is usually the case, these "legends" were scoffed at by the "authorities" until hard evidence began to show up to support it, and even then nothing was properly investigated.
Whereas the skulls from Lovelock measured no more than 12-14 inches from base to crown, there are others of considerably larger size that have been reported. For instance, the well-known zoologist Ivan T. Sanderson, once received a letter from an engineer that was stationed on the island of Shemya in the isolated Aleutian chain in northwest Alaska during World War II. While bulldozing a group of hills for a future airstrip, the workmen found several sedimentary layers, under which were found the skeletal remains of what appeared to be extremely large humans. Most of the giant skulls measured about 22 to 24 inches from base to crown; whereas, a normal human skull only measures eight inches. Apparently, Sanderson later received an additional letter from another person in the unit, who confirmed the story. Both letters indicated that the Smithsonian Institution had taken possession of the remains, and of course, they were never heard about again.
UNUSUAL TEETH AND BONE STRUCTURES
At this point, the credulity of the reader may become tested, for it gets a bit boring telling story after story of gigantic skeletons and skulls two or three times normal size, regardless of how interesting the details may be. But a few more are in order, and then well move on. The central California coastal area near Lompoc is best known for its famous flower fields, but in the field of cryptozoology the region is known for an unusual report4 of 12-foot human remains that were found while soldiers were digging a storage pit for gunpowder in 1833. After hacking through cemented gravel, a giant skeleton was found surrounded by stone axes, carved shells, and the most unusual porphyry blocks carved with indecipherable symbols. The teeth arrangement of the skull was unlike any that are known of, in that there were double sets of both the upper and lower rows of teeth, or double dentition, as it is called. In the end, the artifacts were reburied in a secret location because superstitious natives felt the discovery was a bad omen. To date, its location has not been rediscovered.
Naturally, if this were the only reported giant with unusual features and dentition in the area it might be considered a fluke or anomalous report. In another account,5 from nearby Santa Rosa Island, about 55 miles southwest of Santa Barbara, the skeletal remains of a giant man, with double rows of teeth, was also unearthed. Research has suggested that his people may have subsisted on a species of small elephants that once lived on that island. The elephants, and the giants that feasted on them, have long since disappeared, as have any skulls or bones and thus the solid evidence to make sense of this report.
And then theres the teeth themselves. For example there was a discovery made in 1926 from a town outside of Billings, Montana that was reported6 of an unusually large human-like tooth that had been found in coal deposits deep within the Bearcreek Mutual Coal Mine. The discovery was made by archaeologist J. F. C. Siegfriedt in lumps of coal that had been set aside for inspection. The tooth was said to be about three times normal size and the roots had been replaced with iron, and the enamel with carbon. He claims to have carefully preserved both the tooth and the mineral matrix around which it was encased, but the "authorities" were not interested and no further mention of it has been seen.
A report from the Big Indian Copper Mine7 near the Town of LaSal, Utah, in 1973, shows that human-like teeth are not all that have been found while mining for coal. After bulldozing a site in preparation for a mining operation, amateur rock collector Lin Ottinger found a few pieces of brownish teeth and bones. When he found a large bone buried in rock, that was believed to be at least 100 million years old, he stopped digging and returned later with a professor from the University of Utah, Dr. J. P. Marwitt, who proceeded with the excavation. The bones of two human skeletons were unearthed that had not been dismembered or disfigured, indicating they had not been washed into their position nor had they fallen from a higher level. Marwitt then decided that in order to determine an estimated age accurately, the remains would have to be sent back to the laboratory at the University of Utah. Apparently, establishment science lost interest in the bones, and that was the last that was heard of this incredible find. For those unfamiliar with Michael Cremos several books on forbidden archaeology (see Cremo in the bibliography) which detail the evidence of mankinds prehistoric origins, they are all recommended reading.
From the West Coast to the Midwest, the reports8 continue near Chatfield and Clearwater, Minnesota, where local mounds that were excavated during the late 1800s were found to contain the skeletal remains of a number of large skeletons. Some were reported as being buried head down, and the skulls had a complete double set of dentition and a recessed forehead, similar to those found at Lompoc Rancho, California and Santa Rosa Island, California.
And on the East Coast, near Moundsville, West Virginia, a number of fort-like foundations can be found, including an octagon-shaped encirclement and other guard-post type "wells" in the hills along the river. Unfortunately, these are severely eroded, but the principal construction can still be found in the form of a large burial mound. In 1838, when Grave Creek Mound was originally excavated, it was discovered to contain passages similar to those in the Great Pyramid of Egypt. This earthen pyramid has a network of timber-supported tunnels leading to what appears to be a storage chamber at the middle, and to a burial tomb about seven feet below the surface of the ground. The skeletal remains of what appeared to be a man and woman were found in this lower chamber. Their teeth exhibited an unusual feature, in that the peaks of their molars were conically pointed in shape, as opposed to modern mans, which are squared. Another grave was unearthed above the lower chamber, but below the upper one, which contained another skeleton in a very deteriorated state. There was also a small stone table with 22 runic-like hieroglyphics that was found while excavating near the mound. Luckily, plenty of drawings and casts were made of the object before it disappeared. Since then, "professional" archaeologists have declared it a fake.
One last entry, out of many more of anomalous skeletons and skulls, is an account9 from the 1880s, of a group of distinguished antiquarians that excavated a burial mound near Tioga Point, Pennsylvania. Among those present were Professor W. K. Morehead of Phillips Andover Academy, Professor A. B. Skinner of the American Investigating Museum, and Dr. G. P. Donehoo, a Pennsylvania State historian and distinguished Presbyterian minister. During the dig they unearthed the remains of 68 males with an average height of seven feet. Some of the skulls had bony projections, two inches above the forehead, that appeared to be horn-like buds. Not surprisingly, some of these valuable artifacts were sent to the American Investigating Museum in Philadelphia, but, as usual, they have since disappeared and no one there knows anything about them.
An important point that needs to be made is how few people realize that when the first Spanish explorers made contact in the New World a fair number of the tribes they encountered were of giant stature. Members of some of these tribes were on average 7 or 8 feet tall, with certain individuals being nearly 10 feet tall and possessing the greatest of strength. A number of the large skeletal remains that have been found, especially in some of the older and enigmatic mounds that dot the Midwestern and Southern landscapes, may indeed fall into the category of "native" burials and can very well be explained by conventional theories. On the other hand, some of the more bizarre claims, especially when observed as a whole, give the indication there may have been another species, similar to humans yet of a different physiology, that once inhabited North America.
A RACE OF DWARFS
Another curiosity found amongst the mysteries of bizarre human-like remains are reports of miniature adult humanoid mummies. In one such instance,10 in October of 1932, two men were prospecting for gold in the Pedro Mountains of Wyoming when they found the mummified remains of what appeared to be a mature adult male. The miners were blasting near a stone-walled gulch, and when the dust settled they found the opening of a small cave about four-feet by four-feet and close to fifteen-feet deep. Inside they found the 14-inch tall San Pedro mummy, as it is now called, weighing about 12 ounces, with its arms and legs crossed, leaning perpendicularly upon a small ledge. According to the authorities, it did not appear to be the body of an infant because of the well-developed and proportional head, which would have been proportionally larger if it had been an infant. It had a broad, thin-lipped mouth, the nose was short and broad, the forehead was flattened, and the skin was a deeply-wrinkled dark brown.
In an unusual display of confidence, the Harvard University Anthropological Department at one time attested for the authenticity of the mummy; the American Museum of Natural Historys Dr. Henry Shapiro confirmed that the mummy was of an unknown human type and of enormous age. The Egyptian Department at the Boston Museum indicated that it corresponds to the look of an Egyptian mummy that had been left unwrapped. At one time the Goodman Family owned this meaningful relic from our past, but they have since moved from the area. Another report claims that the artifact had been donated to the Smithsonian Institution, which, of course, has no record of it. However, the Chicago Field Museum of Natural History does have pictures of the unusual mummy.
Another mysterious mummy was discovered deep inside of Mammoth Cave in Kentucky. The cave is one of the largest natural enclosures of its kind in the world. There has been a number of well preserved cadavers, or "Mammoth Cave mummies" as they are usually called, found here since the cave was first discovered in 1809. One of these mummies, found on a deep ledge of the cavern in 1920, was only three feet tall and had red hair. Another Mammoth Cave mummy has been on occasional display at the State Museum of Anthropology in Lexington.
It has come to my attention that in addition to the unusually small mummies noted above, there have been a number of cases where "shrunken skeletons" have been made through the use of known mummification and embalming processes, resulting in the two small fellows pictured here. Notice the very human-like proportions and physiology which are unlike that of the San Pedro mummy.
ANCIENT MINING ACTIVITY
And then theres the enigma of prehistoric mining. There are approximately 5,000 prehistoric pit mines11 of unknown age and origin found in northern Michigan that extend for about 100 miles along the south shore of Lake Superior. Also known as the Arcadian Copper Mines, this is one of the only places on Earth where copper can be found in large quantities in its raw form, as chunks and nuggets. A massive amount, anywhere from 100 million to 500 million pounds, of pure copper appears to have been extracted from these sites. There are still several copper mines functioning in the area and every one of them is located on a site that had been mined in the prehistoric past. However, there has been almost no evidence of any human habitation or settlements, nor any animal bones or human burials anywhere in the area. And yet, the technical engineering that was employed in the construction of some of the mines indicates a highly specialized and organized civilization. In addition, there have been some unusual idol-like artifacts that have been found in the region; some of these can still be found at a private museum in Marble, North Carolina.
Native Americans had no interest in the mines, besides, few aborigine tribes had much use for copper. There are several so-called "Indian" burial mounds, notably in Fall River, MA and Walkerton, IN, that when excavated in the 19th century yielded skeletal remains (up to 9 feet tall) which wore copper artifacts, including copper and/or bronze armor. Dr. Eiler, an archaeologist from Carleton College in Minnesota, has hypothesized that Near-Eastern explorers might have been in the area to mine metals. While commenting on the Indian theory as to the origins of the copper workings Charles Fort wrote: "I think that weve had visitors [and] that they have come here for copper, for instance."
Evidence of mining activity and underground tunnel systems in prehistoric North America are not uncommon. Take for example a report12 that, in 1954, a pair of existing tunnels were discovered while working a mine owned by the Lion Coal Corporation near Wattis, Utah. At an approximate depth of 8,500 feet, miners found pockets of coal that had been heavily oxidized. Further digging revealed the tunnels, 200 feet apart, that were partially filled with crumpled rock and coal, but that had been mined from both sides. No record of any other mining activity in the area has been recorded and no entrances have ever been found. Due to the nature of mining activity there is no doubt that the location of the tunnels has been lost to history.
UNDERGROUND CAVERNS AND TUNNEL SYSTEMS
Besides evidence of ancient mining, there are also a number of underground chambers and tunnels which have been found over the years. For example, in 1962, Consolidated Edison had planned on building a large electric plant at the north end of where East River Park now stands in New York. When a preliminary soil test was conducted with a large core drilling, at the 200-foot level, the drill reportedly punched through to a large underground cavern of unascertainable size. As the story goes, the hole was secretly filled in and Consolidated Edison built a nice park over it.
Ten years later, in September 1972, a spokesman for the J.F. Barrett Company of Devon reported finding an unusual tunnel while excavating in Milford, Connecticut for a new sewer. The tunnel appeared to be made partially from dry stone masonry and was more than 200 feet long. At one point there was a masonry arch approximately ten feet across and ten feet high. Naturally, the workmen were there to install a sewer, finished the job as expected, and thats the last anyones heard about it.
There is also a series of subterranean tunnel systems that have been made from arched masonry structures, found beneath Memphis, Tennessee. The establishment claims that they were built by the military during the civil war. The tunnels that are accessible show a high degree of skill and workmanship, and a great expense of time went into building them, not likely in time of war. There is an entrance to one of them at the east end of Harahan Bridge on I-55. The entrance is between Indiana and Delaware Streets, to the right heading east on Crump Boulevard. It is said to lead to a bigger tunnel that runs lateral to the Mississippi River north along South Third Street towards the center of the city.
And in Lexington, Kentucky, there was a report by G. W. Ranck in the 1872 History of Lexington describing a gallery of tunnels somewhere beneath this city. The report detailed how, in 1776, hunters from the frontier town of Booneborough found rocks of "peculiar workmanship," behind which was found a tunnel. The small opening inclined sharply into the rock and enlarged to a grand gallery about four feet wide and seven feet high. After a few hundred feet the gallery led to an even larger chamber that was 18 feet high, 100 feet wide and 300 feet in length. Inside of this chamber were found an altar, idols, and about 2,000 human mummies.
Apparently unusual tunnels come in all sizes. In the summer of 1973, in Croften, Maryland, during excavation for a parking lot, workmen found a collection of tunnels which were about 20 inches in diameter. An amateur archaeologist, William Doepkins, concluded that they may have been made by a large rodent, from the claw and tooth marks that were found on the walls. Naturally, the habitat of those oversized rodents was only superficially explored, the lot was leveled, and a parking lot was built over this unusual find.
There is a well-documented case of an unknown tunnel, that originally was discovered in the late 1800s. When searching for a rabbit, a group of hunters discovered an ancient tunnel system made from mortarless dry masonry near the cemetery in Goshen, Massachusetts. The rabbit had jumped into a burrow near the top of a vertical shaft that had been concealed with flagstones covered with sod and shrubbery. The shaft is three and half feet in diameter and about fifteen feet deep, with two horizontal tunnels that branch off, one at the bottom running eastward, and another three feet from the bottom, which travels westward. The tunnels are about two feet wide and about two and a half feet high with flagstone ceilings supported by sidewalls made of stone. The bottom shaft travels about 75 feet, and the upper one about 15 feet, before reaching points where they have collapsed.
There have been a number of theories as to its origin and purpose. One theory is that settlers built it as a shelter from Indian attacks, though none are known to have occurred in the area. Another is that is was part of the "underground railroad," though it was hardly practical for that use. Or that is was a water well, but then why the horizontal shafts, which according to engineers required an enormous amount of effort to bore such narrow shafts, especially in such dense hardpan, at such an unusual right angle, and in such a confined workspace. The structure has more recently been known as "Counterfeiters Den," from the story that counterfeiters were once caught several miles southwest of the site.
There is a Piute, or Paiute, Indian legend of an underground city below Death Valley, that they refer to as Shin-Au-av. An Indian guide in the 1920s, Tom Wilson, claimed that his grandfather had discovered catacombs below the ground in the area. He says that they led to an underground city where people spoke an unknown language and wore leather-like clothing. Also in the Death Valley area, a prospector by the name of White says that he had fallen from an abandoned mine near Wingate Pass into a mysterious tunnel. He claims he followed the tunnel which led to a succession of rooms in which he found stacks of gold bricks guarded by hundreds of humanoid mummies that were clad in leather. It is interesting to note that when times were tough Walter Scotty, of nearby Scottys Castle fame, would wander in the desert for a few days at a time and bring back processed gold that he said he had prospected.
Around the turn of the century, near the city of Chehalis, Washington, there was a man named H F. Forest that claimed he had been prospecting when he came upon a large flat rock "which had been hewn from human hands." He removed the rock and found a cave entrance on the south side of Mount Rainier. He entered the cave and discovered an enclosure about 12-feet high and 60-feet wide, on whose smoothly polished walls could be found "hieroglyphics and figures made by human hands." He explored to a depth of about five miles, occasionally encountering side passages containing ice caves, sulfur springs, hot springs, and cold springs. At one location he came upon human-size bathtubs which had been carved into the bedrock with converging streams of water entering them. Forrest then reportedly came upon an immense underground lake, where a large canoe was chained with silver links to the wall. He removed the canoe and explored the enormous lake for more than a mile in each direction, without reaching shore. Later he came upon a side passage with heavy vaults, one of whose lids was ajar. Inside he found the bodies of two people, a man and a woman, reportedly between seven and eight feet in height. Both had been laid out on slabs of ice, and were perfectly preserved in a completely frozen state. Forrest left town on 16 Mar 1901, and was never heard from again.
In another report, reminiscent of a scene from The Twilight Zone, a traveler to the Mojave Desert north of Baker, California claims he found a small habitation of about 30 dwellings, arranged as a planned community, that had been partially unburied by the shifting of the sands. The structures were said to have been built of wood with massive handmade room timbers. He also claims that there were heavy wooden tables that had been set for a meal. There are no trees found for miles around, nor is there any record of any mining, or other settlement, in the area.
The grand-daddy of all underground city stories can be read in the accompanying article that appeared in the April 5th, 1909 Phoenix Gazette. It describes an underground city in the Grand Canyon that contained a number of unusual artifacts. And the grand-daddy of all underground city stories can be read in this article that appeared in the 05 Apr 1909 Phoenix Gazette.
In the 1880s, geologist Andrew Douglass described13 an ancient canal that ran for a mile and a half between the Naples, Florida, Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. The mysterious canal is "straight as an arrow," about 55 feet across and up to 40 feet deep in places, slicing through both plateaus and sand banks. The bottom of the canal narrows to about twelve feet, and has a two-foot-deep trench about four feet across running down the center. Douglass thought this trench might have been for the keel of a boat. Douglass also wrote "it was a work of enormous labor;" but the question is, what was the purpose, and who in this meagerly populated area could have undertaken it?
Other canals have been found as well, in particular the remains from the Hohokam Indians in the area near present-day Phoenix, Arizona. Their canals were lined with caliche, a type of cement that allowed them to irrigate much of the Salt and Gila river valleys and create a desert paradise. The Hohokam had built about 250 miles of canals that date from about the year 1300. Some of the old canals can still be seen in various locations, whereas many of the modern canals that crisscross the greater-metropolitan Phoenix area no doubt follow the same routes.
There have been a number of artifacts which have been brought up from below ground that have baffled the authorities. In August,1889, an object that has become known as the "Nampa Image" was reportedly14 pumped up from a well on the property of M. A. Kurtz, a professional well-driller from the Nampa, Idaho area. Kurtz and two workmen claim they were drilling through coarse sand at the 300-foot level when the artifact was brought up by the machinery. The object is obviously humanoid, and is a brownish piece of clay an inch and a half in length. The image had been sent back East for analysis and a professor at Oberlin College, Albert A. Wright, found it was half clay and half quartz, and that the fractured right leg was not recent. Then, Dr. G. Frederick Wright (no relation), of the Boston Society of Natural History went to Nampa to investigate the circumstances in which it was discovered. He inspected the steam-driven pump and drilling machinery. He then questioned Kurtz at length, and reported to the Society that "there is no grounds to question the fact that this image came up in the sand pump from the depth reported." Professor F. W. Putnam, also of Boston, stated "the cementing of quartz grains by iron molecules under the images right arm was evidence of great age." The Idaho State Historical Society, in Boise, has retained caretakership of the artifact, one of only a few surviving objects of a similar nature that have been found in America.
In another similar report,15 from August 1870, near Lawnridge, Illinois, there was an artifact that was brought up with drilling residues while boring an artesian well at a depth of 125 feet, according to Jacob W. Moffit of Chillicothe. The coin-like object was about the size of a quarter-dollar of the era. The illustration shows a man-like being riding some sort of bird. Scientist William E. DuBois examined the coin carefully and stated that the coin showed no signs of hammering and the patterns on it appeared to have been etched with chemicals, rather than being stamped or engraved. DuBois also felt that the coin must have been passed through a rolling mill and that there were other signs of work in a machine shop. He concluded by stating "how it got into such a deep place, supposing it to be a bona fide discovery, which I cannot call into question, is a very perplexing point . . ."
And this most unusual report,16 from 1851, of an unusual object unearthed in Dorchester, Massachusetts while blasting to expand a house of worship operated by the Reverend Mr. Hall. Amongst the tons of debris scattered about, workmen discovered a "metallic vessel in two parts." The object was approximately four inches wide by six inches high, was bell-shaped, and showed a high degree of craftsmanship. Apparently, it had been blown out of solid pudding stone from 15 feet below the surface. The Scientific American stated that it was satisfied that it had occurred as reported. It was believed to be an alloy of silver and zinc and had six figures of a bouquet around the circumference and a wreath-like decoration around the base, both of which had been beautifully inlaid with silver.
THE COGSTONES OF THE TOPANGA CULTURE
Artifacts of significant archaeological interest have been found17 throughout the Los Angeles basin, the western half of San Diego county, and on certain isles in the Channel Islands chain not far from shore. The most famous relics from this lost civilization are known as the "cog stones of the Topanga Culture" and have been found mostly in the Bolsa Chica State Beach area. These California cog stones, as they are commonly called, are gear-like stones ranging in size from two to six inches in diameter, with a thickness up to two inches. The cog stones come with different characteristics such as cups, cusps, hemispherical grooves and dents, sprocketed teeth around the edges, as well as cookie-cutter patterns. Most all of these features occur at precise and repeating intervals, and about 15 percent had a single hole bored through the center. Many times these holes are narrower on one side, have elliptical sides, are conical, or double conical, where the entry point holes are narrower on either side than at the midpoint.
One of the artifacts in particular has a striking anomaly in that it has perfectly square perforation in the middle, something that would be troublesome to duplicate even with our present machine shop technology. Many of the cog stones are found at the circa 6,000 B.C.E. strata, containing artifacts that are some of the most primitive found in North America. The uniqueness of these artifacts are not so much their being found primarily at the estimated 8,000 year old level, but in the fact that a cog-stone-only level occurs below this one that is of a correspondingly older age. It seems pretty obvious that the later peoples may have found the relics of the previous culture and they thus became deposited in their strata. Questions remain on the origins of this earlier tribe.
ROMAN RELICS OFARIZONA
More unusual artifacts were unearthed18 in 1924, when Charles E. Manier found a riveted lead cross and other artifacts of a mysterious nature near Tucson, Arizona. The cross had been protruding from where the roadway had cut through an embankment on a bluff on the west side of the Santa Cruz River. Nearly three dozen artifacts were eventually found at this site. One of the first crosses to be unearthed was bound together by rivets; and when each half was separated they revealed Latin and Hebrew inscriptions, but of an unknown style and form.
Reminiscent of Havisupal Canyon, one of the crosses had, as its only inscription, a depiction of what could only be a dinosaur. A number of the symbols revealed possible mystical origins, including emblems of freemasonry, in particular the Masonic square and compass. Another cross that was found had a snake entwined around it and displayed a number of indecipherable symbols and a few Hebrew letters. Many of the artifacts have an esoteric element associated with them in one way or another.
Manier and his friend Thomas Bent, who owned the property and therefore the artifacts, had brought in skilled professionals with irreproachable credentials to assist in the excavation. The establishments final verdict was that a catholic boy of Hispanic decent, Vicente Odohui, who had lived in the area; or possibly Mormons trying to support doctrine, had planted the artifacts beforehand. These both may be plausible explanations for the discovery of these objects, except when they are viewed together with other artifacts of a similar nature. Many of the Tucscon artifacts have been donated to the Arizona Historical Society and are on occasional display in Tucson.
Then theres the report19 from the 1940s of a farmer in Clarksville, Virginia named James V. Howe, who found quite a few swords, weapons, chisels and even threaded nuts. Other artifacts unearthed include a bronze spindle whorl, a broken bronze cup, and other pieces of bronze. According to historian Charles M. Boland, the bronze cup is very similar to Pompeian cups of the Roman Empire. Howe eventually began working sites as far away as Brunswick County, 50 miles to the east. Howe determined that since there were no traces of tin or copper at the sites, the bronze must have been brought in from elsewhere.
It should come as no surprise that in 1951 an announcement was made that the river would be dammed and the area in question would be flooded, so the Smithsonian Institution conducted a cursory excavation. But the results were inconclusive, and they declined to run carbon dating techniques to try and determine their age. Many other universities and institutions refused Howes request to date them. At last report, some of the bronze and iron relics can still be found at the Smithsonian, if one knows where to look, though they have been classified as "origin uncertain." Unfortunately, most of Howes excavation sites are now underwater.
ELEPHANT SLABS OF NEW MEXICO
At the beginning of the twentieth century, there were two small stone tablets found near Flora Vista, New Mexico by a local boy. Inscribed onto the tablets were indecipherable hieroglyphics of an unknown origin. One particularly unusual aspect is that there are two small elephants inscribed on one of the "elephant slabs," as they have come to be called. This is unusual indeed, since according to the generally "accepted" belief man could not have possibly inhabited North America when elephants roamed freely, so where did its engraver obtain knowledge of the pachyderms? Paleontologists claim that elephants became extinct in North America nearly 40,000 years ago, long before aborigines had first crossed the Bering Straits.
A clue may be found in the fact that a large number of the symbols were similar to those alphabets used in the Near East in about 1,100 B.C.E. Travelers from the Mediterranean region would have had the knowledge of elephants. There was also a smattering of other characters across the rocks, mostly symbols and characters of unknown meaning. The site that the slabs were reportedly found dates to about the year 1,000 C.E. Another artifact, a jug dated to about the same time, was found near Shiprock Mountain, to the northwest of Flora Vista. An elephant figure was found etched into that one as well. Because the elephant slabs dont fit in with contemporary thinking they have been rejected as fakes by archaeologists. They were last on display at Tucsons Arizona State Museum.
There have been a number of strange and undecipherable inscriptions found in various parts of the United States. While many of these depictions can be attributed to known cultures and/or peoples, there are several notable exceptions whose origin and age cannot be conclusively determined. For example, in the fall of 1868, near Hammondsville, Ohio, workmen at a coal strip mine discovered a large slate wall behind a massive chunk of coal. The wall reportedly was scattered with undecipherable hieroglyphics, in lines about three inches apart. Local experts could not figure out what to make of it, and before more qualified scholars could arrive the wall disintegrated a short time after its exposure to fresh air.
And in Nov 1829, as reported by Professor Silliman in the American Journal of Science and Arts, a block of marble was being quarried from a depth of 70 to 80 feet near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania that bore what appeared to be two inscribed letters. As the block was being cut into slabs, a rectangular cavity of about one and a half inches by five-eighths of an inch containing two raised letters was revealed by the saw blade. The letters coincided with our modern-day letters "I" and "U" with the "U" being in angular block form.
Of the many reports of ancient inscriptions, there is one20 that received a great deal of attention at the time it was first reported, and thus is very well documented, including several renderings. It was discovered in March, 1891, when an unusual stone with bizarre inscriptions was found by a farmer named J. H. Hooper on a wooded ridge in Bradley County, Tennessee. He thought he had found the headstone to a grave, but as he dug deeper he uncovered other stones that formed a wall of three courses. In all, the wall was about two feet thick, eight feet high, and for about sixteen feet of its length, measured from the north end, it was covered with nearly 900 symbols and letters, arranged in wavy, nearly parallel and diagonal lines. The wall was traced and examined in many places for a distance of nearly a thousand feet, its course marked on the surface with stones like that outlined in the illustration that projected a few inches above the surface at intervals of twenty-five to thirty feet. A few of the inscriptions, in particular, were of a very unusual nature, one depicting a bearded kangaroo-like animal with two duck-like feet. An interesting aspect about the slab itself is the fact that after the letters had been carved onto the wall, a dark red cement was applied and then a closely fitting external course of stones was placed upon the whole, as if someone had tried to conceal the wall. There were also a number of what appeared to be oriental characters, which the authorities claim were "accidental." The origin and date of these inscriptions remains unknown.
Also in Tennessee, near Sweetwater, in 1885 archaeologists from the Smithsonian Institution found a stone slab that was covered with undecipherable inscriptions. Not surprisingly, the strange object was catalogued as being Cherokee Indian. A scholar on Mediterranean culture from Brandeis University, Dr. Cyrus Gorden, postulated that the characters on the stone, and another found near Fort Benning, Georgia, looked very similar to the lettering of the Minoan culture that became extinct in about 1,100 B.C.E. Amazingly, the Smithsonian Institution did not "misplace" the object, and in more recent years an archaeologist from the Museum of Art in Columbus, Georgia; a Joseph B. Mahan, revived interest in the object. Whether the Smithsonian Institution still possesses this object, or any of the countless others mentioned in this book, remains to be seen.
STAIRWAY TO NOWHERE
There is an 80-foot high sculpted limestone outcropping, known as the Balustrade Bluffs, that runs for about two miles along the Mississippi River to the northwest of Alton, Illinois.21 Authorities have once again declared that this entire area was caused by selectively random erosion. At the center of this huge geo-anomaly is a "Stairway to Nowhere," whose beginning and end are just there, nowhere. It is also known as the Grand Staircase, and if it is a natural formation, it is a strange one indeed.
At the base of the staircase is the Piasa Rock Carving, or rather, the one that has been recently painted on top of it based on a drawing published in 1839, in Germany, by Henry Lewis. His illustrations showed a group of Indian shamans on canoes pointing at a figure with a bearded face and horns; however, drawings by earlier explorers were less dramatic, and have been closer to reality.
FOOTPRINTS IN STONE
There are many reports of mysterious human-like footprints that have been found cast in stone, presumably having been laid down while the ground was still soft. In one such case, from January 1938, a set of ten human-like footprints were reported22 in Rockcastle County, Kentucky, by geologist Wilbur G. Burroughs. The footprints had been molded into a sandstone rock formation that was found in strata from the Upper Carboniferous Period, ending approximately 310 million years ago. The earliest ancestors of modern man are believed to be about 3.5 million years old. An interesting feature of these unusually large footprints was that they measured about six inches across in width, while only being nine or ten inches in length.
In another unusual find, in the summer of 1882, at a quarry excavation in the yard of the State Prison in Carson City, Nevada, a number of footprints were found23 in a sandstone layer belonging to the Upper Pliocene, ending about 10 million years ago. Among the prints can be found those which look like birds, elephants, horses, wolves, and six groups that resemble left and right human footprints with a straddle width of about 18 inches. A normal human straddle with is about 5 inches. The prints were about 8 inches wide and 18 to 20 inches in length. Writing in the American Journal of Science, scientist O. C. Marsh ruled out them being of human origin due to their size and the width of their stride, instead he was certain they had been made by a "large sloth" whose "hind feet covered the impressions of those in the front."
In a little place called Brayton, Tennessee, there are also a number of unusual footprints which have been molded into solid rock. They appear to have been made by a giant horse, and nearby are some human-like footprints that are about thirteen inches wide and which show six toes. And in another well-known occurrence,24 there have been numerous enigmatic human-like footprints found embedded in stone in Dinosaur Valley State Park, in Texas. What makes these prints so unusual is not only their enormous size, but the fact that they are found alongside, and in some cases overlapping, obvious dinosaur tracks which are believed to be about 135 million years old. It is interesting to note "establishment sciences" reaction to this one: they accept the dinosaur tracks as genuine and dismiss the humanoid ones as fake, made by practical jokers, Indians, locals, or whomever. It is obvious that the prints are not fakes because of the ridges that were pushed up around the edges when the foot originally sank into the mud, which then eventually turned to stone. Many of these prints have since been destroyed by a flood that inundated the area in 1978, but a few still remain.
There is another strange case of what may be the oldest fossil footprint found to date, a fossilized human sandal print found near Antelope Springs, Utah, in June of 1968. This incredible discovery, found by William J. Meister, an amateur fossil collector on a rock and fossil hunting expedition with his family, was embedded in Cambrian rock that dates between 300 and 600 million years old. Meister discovered the fossil after splitting open a two inch slab of rock with his hammer, the rock falling open "like a book." On the one side was a layer of trilobites, on the other was the sandaled footprint, with trilobites embedded within. Like a human shoe print, the sandal print was 10 1/2 inches long by 3 1/2 inches wide, and slightly indented at the heel.
An unusual aspect of this find, besides the fact that a supposed late Paleozoic human wore sandals, is the actuality that the trilobites embedded in the footprint suggest that the two were laid down at the same time, when the rock was still mud. Trilobites flourished beginning 600 million years ago and then became extinct 280 million years ago. They were a small marine invertebrate that were related to other crustaceans like shrimp and crab. According to conventional wisdom, modern humans arrived on the scene no earlier than two to three million years ago. Man has been wearing footwear for only the past few thousand years.
Meister took the rock to the University of Utah, where he showed it to Melvin Cook, a professor of metallurgy, who suggested that he show the rock to the experts in the geology department. He was unable to find a geologist to inspect the fossil, so he turned to a local newspaper, the Deseret News, and gained national recognition for the find. Other fossilized footprints have been found in the area. The site was examined by a consulting geologist, one Dr. Clifford Burdick, from Tucson, Arizona, in July of 1968, who soon found fossilized imprints of a childs foot. "The impression," he said, "was about six inches in length, with the toes spreading, as if the child had never yet worn shoes, which compress the toes. There does not appear to be much of an arch, and the big toe is not prominent." Dr. Burdick stated: "The rock chanced to fracture along the front of the toes before the fossil print was found. On a cross section, the fabric of the rock stands out in fine laminations, or bedding planes. Where the toes pressed into the soft material, the laminations were bowed downward from the horizontal, indicating a weight that had been pressed into the mud."
THE COSO GEODE
In February 1961, three rock hunters, Wallace Lane, Virginia Maxey and Mike Mikesell found what appeared25 to be a fossil-encrusted geode near Olancha, California. It reportedly sat around for a while, and when it was finally cut open it severely damaged a new diamond saw blade. Unlike a normal geode, the exterior was primarily of hardened clay with a mixture of organic matter. Within the crust were also found objects that appear to be a washer and a nail. In fact, the object was not like a real geode, it was of a different composition, and it did not have a hollow center like most common geodes. Instead there was a nearly perfect cylindrical core of a hard white ceramic that had a 2-mm shiny metal shaft running down the center. In addition, when the core was removed it left a partial hexagonal cavity in the shell of the rock. X-rays of the object show that it has many features of the copper and porcelain spark plugs used in early gasoline engines. However, testing has revealed that some of the fossils in the outer crust may be as much as 500,000 years old. There are a number of what appear to be abandoned mines in the area, though none that are known to have been worked since the white man arrived in the area. Recent analysis of this interesting artifact seems to indicate it may have been a hoax, though it is uncertain how the hoaxers profited from it.
OUR CATACLYSMIC PAST
There has been a great deal written on the tumultuous geological history that has occurred here on planet Earth (See Velikovsky, Cremo, Sitchin, and others in the bibliography). If there were an advanced civilization that existed on Earth before recorded history began, could it have been, like the famed city-state of Atlantis, been laid asunder by cataclysmic events that have occurred in the remote past? Besides what weve looked at so far, there is some physical evidence in the form of geological anomalies, such as the one26 at the tip of Point Loma near San Diego, CA, which has many authorities baffled. There are hundreds of metamorphic and lava-formed boulders which become revealed at low tide at this site just to the west of downtown San Diego. There are rocks and boulders on the bluff, 350 feet above the shoreline, the largest of which, weighing about 50 tons, lies about 30 feet from the area lighthouse. The aberration is to explain how all these rocks ended up here, especially the ones topside on the bluff, since the closest source for the rock is about 18 miles to the southwest on north Coronado Island. One of the plausible explanations is that, at a time in the not too distant past, there had been widespread and catastrophic ocean flooding which uplifted the rocks to their present location. There are sites where similar deposits have been found throughout San Diego County, in particular a 30-acre site near Alpine that is about 20 miles east of San Diego at an elevation of 1,500 feet.
Also of interest is the Willcockson fossil beds, found in Marble Falls, Arkansas, which contain the fossilized remains of tropical palm trees, saber-tooth tigers, American rhinoceroses, and other tropical flora and fauna that theoretically shouldnt be found this far north. There is also a massive marine fossil bed near Lake Okeechobee, Florida that dates from the Pleistocene era. The 40-foot layer of deposits contains mostly mollusks and other marine life that are now found only in remote parts of the Pacific Ocean. In addition, the upper layers of the fossil pit contain a number of disjointed bones of what are believed to be large terrestrial animals, presumably mammals. Well-known archaeologist Dr. J. Manson Valentine thought that the fossil pit was a sea bed, and that the layers had been laid down as long as 30,000 years ago. Valentine believed this was additional evidence that a world-wide catastrophic flood had occurred in recent history. He also suggested that the fossil deposits that only occur in the Pacific could have been laid down by cataclysmic waves before there was a substantial land bridge in Central America.
Another cataclysmic anomaly, this time out in the Pacific Ocean, sits on top of the extinct Mauna Kea volcano, in Hawaii, where there appear to be remnants of clear glacial ice. According to Dr. Alfred Woodcock,27 the ice conceivably dates back to the Pleistocene Era, and therefore may be as ancient as 10,000 to 25,000 years old. The question which must be asked is why tropical insects can be found within the ice in these frigid conditions, and how and when a glacier of considerable size formed in the middle of one of the worlds warmest tropical oceans.
THEY ALL DISCOVERED AMERICA
From here on, were going to be going over some of the more mundane entries. While still interesting in their own respect, most are no doubt the result of more recent human activity and habitation. For those not familiar with the notion of pre-Columbian explorations to North America, suffice it to say that "everyone discovered America" including evidence of explorations by the Assyrians, Babylonians, Celts, Chinese, Egyptians, Greeks, Hindus, Minoans, Nordics, Pacific Islanders, Phoenicians, Romans, Vikings, the Welsh, and West Africans, just to name a few. Artifacts and remnants of these once-great civilizations, like the cuneiform tablets pictured here, have been found throughout North America. Some of the following entries are no doubt a result of these worldwide excursions.
There are some underwater structures in Tarpon Springs, Florida that are similar to those found near Bimini and Andros in the Caribbean. Well-known archaeologist Dr. J. Manson Valentine describes the artifacts as "obviously cut stone disks" that are possible sun symbols used in archaic ceremonies. There are also a number of 8-inch diameter hexagonal stones of unknown origin or purpose found in the area. They might have been used for some type of cobble-stone road or boundary lines, that, even still, run onto the shore from a level platform standing in about four feet of water offshore.
Valentine believed that the structures may eventually be associated with the enigmatic Arawak people who are believed to have built a similar complex of square courts cut into the bedrock on the West Indian island of St. Lucia. Although the Arawak were said to have had colonies in the Gulf states, Florida, the Bahamas, and the Caribbean, they were believed to have been headquartered in northern South America. Valentine believed that the Arawaks were in fact a blond race of bearded tribesmen related to the Inca and early Polynesians.
Just north of the 33rd parallel, along the Gila River, lies Cochran Ghost Town,28 a place of mystery and intrigue if there ever was one. There is a row of five domed structures along this prominent river in Arizona that are as beautiful as they are baffling. The Beehives, as they have become known, stand 32 feet tall and are made from stone granite blocks held in place without mortar, in a feat of masonic engineering. There is a three-foot by six-foot door at the front and a three-foot by five-foot opening at the upper rear of each one.
Unfortunately, there are no documented sources concerning the origin of the domes at this site. Some people claim they were built by an ancient Indian tribe from Central America, since strikingly similar beehive-like structures have been found there. Others believe early Spaniards were responsible for building them. One theory of particular interest is that they were built as lead smelters by Phoenicians who arrived here circa 1500 B.C.E. and founded a city nearby, which later became Phoenix. A professor from Northern Arizona University, Dr. Ronald Ives, writes of the Phoenician theory that "a considerable amount of evidence suggests either one or more pre-Columbian visits to the area by Europeans . . ." In fact, as can be seen in subsequent books in this series, there is an accumulating mound of evidence supporting pre-Columbian visits by not only European explorers, but those from the Far East, the Middle East, and the Near East as well.
Another mystery can be found out in the Pacific Ocean where there is an enigmatic shrine of unknown origin on the uninhabited 200 yard by 1,300 yard Necker Island about 300 miles northwest of the Island of Kauai, Hawaii. There are a number of paved terraces of considerable size, each with a row of monoliths on raised platforms on one end. Nearby, there are other slabs standing upright amongst other related stone artifacts. In fact, a number of small artifacts have been found at this site, including idols carved from stone that are unlike other Polynesian artifacts found in the Hawaiian Islands.
In the hills above Oakland and Berkeley in California there are some ancient walls of mysterious origin. Some of the most startling examples are in the Botanical Garden section of the Tilden Regional Park northeast of the University of California at Berkeley campus. It is estimated that the walls extend about 7 miles, amongst the steep cliff and dense undergrowth, of the San Pablo Ridge. They are mainly found around the Grizzly and Vollmer peaks, overlooking Redwood Canyon, and on the south slope of Mt. Baldy. The height of the walls averages about 3 feet and the width about 4 feet in most places. They have been made from loose piles of rocks arranged in curved, intersecting, but mostly straight lines. Some of the rocks weigh upwards of a ton, though most are only a few hundred pounds. The authorities claim these structures were used as Indian livestock corrals or game traps, even though they would have been ineffective for either purpose.
Eight miles to the southwest of Berryville, Arkansas, a rocky outcrop contains a uniformly rectangular doorway29 about four feet high and 1 1/2 feet wide that leads through a winding passage to a small circular enclosure. It has been labeled a treasure chamber or a "Spanish mine" but its extremely low ceiling height would invalidate either of those claims. This site is on private land between Brushy creek and the Prescott farm.
UNUSUAL STONE STRUCTURES
There are a large number of anomalous stone structures that can be found throughout southern Colorado and northern New Mexico. There are at least a half-dozen known sites30 in Apishapa River Canyon in Colorado. Many of them are associated with petroglyphs that have been found in canyons and valleys near each site. The structures in this area are always found in pairs: a simpler one to the west or northwest, and a more elaborate site across the Apishapa River and usually at a lower elevation. They are normally situated on cliffs, bluffs, plateaus, or mesas, within a line of site with each other, and with landmarks in the surrounding landscape.
All of the sites consist mostly of ellipsoidal lines and circles that have been made from sandstone slabs. The slabs themselves are usually about eight to ten inches thick, sometimes sit as high as a yard off the ground, and exhibit a moderate to extreme amount of weathering. The first pair is near the mouth of Apishapa Canyon, looking over the prairie to the north. The more intricate of the pair consists of several circles, the largest about twenty feet in diameter, with a concentric circle within it. There is a stone wall surrounding the site with a doorway on the west side. Across the river, which is far below, is the other half of the pair. It includes only two non-contiguous circles that run parallel to the river.
The next pair of sites can be found about a mile further upstream, and the third pair is about five miles to the southwest from the first site. It is at a place where the Apishapa Canyon is intersected by South Canyon from the west. This site is unusual in that it uses much larger stones than any of the others in the area. It incorporates three groups of six circular structures that have been placed side-by-side. Each of the circular structures has a stone pillar, implicative of phallic standing stones found elsewhere; four of these can still be found standing. At the eastern end of the site is an underground passageway that was made by covering over cloven spaces in the rock.
In West Virginia there are a number of wall-like structures that run north and south for about three miles on a lofty summit in a barren environment. The Mount Carbon Stone Walls, as they are known, are similar in their slab-like construction to those found near Apishapa River Canyon, Colorado, though not as complex or consistent in form. There are several mounds, even one shaped like a turtle, in the center of the complex made from both earth and rock fabrication. There are also some flint quartz rocks of considerable size incorporated into the structure that must have been brought up this 2,300-foot peak, since none occurs naturally at this level. In addition, evidence of worked flint instruments has been found near the mounds.
CAHOKIA MOUND COMPLEX
The Cahokia Mounds complex is a 224-acre site, containing about 120 Mississippian culture mounds, that was the largest city of its time in North America, covering land on both sides of the Mississippi River near St. Louis, MO. Its main feature, Monks Mound, was named after a monastery built on its top during French occupation of the area. At 16-acres, the mound has a base larger than the Great Pyramid of Egypt, and is also the biggest man-made prehistoric structure in North America, dwarfed only by the pyramids at the Cholula and Teotihuacan. It is, however, the largest earthen structure in the world.
More recently, speculation on the purpose of this site has seemed to focus on its use as a possible ancient observatory, since a number of circular arrays have been found supporting this theory. The largest of these is over 400 feet across and was believed to have used wooden posts in 48 strategically placed holes to calculate solstices, equinoxes and even eclipses. Its an "American Woodhenge," declared Warren L. Witty, an archae-astronomer that has studied the site extensively.
What is probably most unusual about Cahokia is that we have almost no idea who the so-called Cahokians might have been, what language they spoke, or why and how they disappeared. The entire complex has Aztec and Mayan overtones, including its pyramidal structures and obligatory temples and sub-structures. But in fact, according to "official archaeology" no artifacts from Central American cultures has ever been found here, and therefore they dont fit with what "officially" should be this far north.
One of New Englands infamous "Beehive Caves" can be found in Pelham, Massachusetts, on a private cemetery that has been in the Smith family for generations. The entrance to this igloo-like structure is barely visible from above ground. Below ground the interior broadens out into about a four-foot beehive structure made from mortarless dry masonry. Another "Beehive," this one free-standing and above ground, can be found on private land, near the town of Upton, Massachusetts. The entrance to this one is only about four feet high but has a 14-foot long entryway. As usual, authorities label such structures as "Colonial Root Cellars."
Another "Beehive Cave" can be found dug into the hill near Wendell, Massachusetts. This one is a little more accessible than the Pelham site mentioned above. In spite of it being a little smaller, three and a half feet in height instead of four feet, than Pelham, it does have features which are of more interest. There is also a crude monolith in the area with what appears to be a monk sitting inside a beehive inscribed on its surface, and was said to have been carved about 900 years ago. Centuries ago, the Culdee monks of Scotland and Ireland built similar structures, which has led to a theory about the beehive structures being alchemists lairs for fugitive Irish monks. And of course, the official "colonial root cellar" or "steambath for Indians" theories have predominated, but must be abandoned when compared to the beehive structures found throughout the North America. In fact, strikingly similar beehive-like structures have been found as far south as Central America.
Probably one of Americas most popular ancient sites is Mystery Hill, in North Salem, New Hampshire, which has come to be called Americas Stonehenge. Spread across the 20-acre hilltop and woodland site are a number of unusual structures and foundations, including an assumed sacrificial slab, site lines for an ancient observatory, a deep "well" where non-native quartz crystals have been found, and the presence of dolmens and domed "beehive" structures similar to those found elsewhere in America.
There are a series of overlapping stone slabs, some as large as 20 tons, which form an arrangement of about 22 tunnels and enclosures on top of Pattees Hill. The site may have been built as part of an extension of a natural cave system present in the hill. Several of the structures have apparent astronomical alignments. For instance, on the stone named the "Winter Solstice Monolith," the suns rays cut a direct line across the supposed sacrificial altar on December 21, the first day of Winter. On some of the structures on this site there are inscriptions that resemble those used by Phoenicians, including the design of a double-ax, or labrys, which has been associated with the early Mediterranean civilization of Crete. There is a shaft at the east end of the complex that is about 18-feet deep. In the bottom of this pit were found extraordinary bunches of quartz crystals that do not occur naturally anywhere near here.
Mystery Hill is probably most unusual in that it is characteristically unlike nearly every other ancient site in North America. Its megalithic building style is much more akin to ancient Irish and Scottish building sites than to anything found in Americas past. An amateur archaeologist from Hartford, Connecticut, William B. Goodwing, believed that the Mystery Hill Complex was the relic of Irland-it-Mikla, the "Great Ireland" mentioned in Norse mariner legends. He suggested that the Culdee monks from Ireland had built the megalith after fleeing the Norse across the Atlantic, in the 9th century. Of course, the assertion of expert "professionals" is that the entire complex was built by a settler named Jonathan Pattee as a spare-time project, either that or they were constructed as "root cellars," take your pick.
THE MIMA MOUNDS
There are many unusual prostrate mounds in the remote prairie area northwest of Chehalis, Washington. The "Mima Mounds," as they are known, estimated at one time to be close to a million in number, at places reach a density of 10,000 per square mile. The largest mounds are about seven feet high and anywhere from 6 to 70 feet in diameter, and more than commonly than not, almost perfectly hemispherical.
The mounds are made mostly from gravel, with many containing large boulders, and some having a black silt foundation extending about a foot into the ground. Some locations have what appears to be cobblestones between the mounds, whereas other areas have an amalgam of gravel and silt. Early settlers assumed the mounds contained burials of some kind, as the Chinook Indian word for death is Mima, and yet, no Indian legends of the area are known. No human remains or artifacts of any kind have been found in any of the mounds excavated thus far. Apparently, the mounds may still be increasing in size, since old-timers in the area report that year-by-year they are slowly growing.
There is a great deal of evidence that entire parts of the Midwest, including parts of Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, were thoroughly submerged in an ice-melt ocean at the end of the last ice age. There is also considerable proof that the area had been settled by what appear to be a Viking-like people centuries, and even millennia, before what the "authorities" will admit. Ships were brought in on the ancient shorelines and settlements were built. Various shoreline levels are evident throughout the area, most likely as a result of both slow drainage of the inland sea over time, and geological instability that caused entire regions to subside and change water levels.
Many of the stones and boulders along this shoreline were inevitably used as "mooring stones" to anchor boats or fly ceremonial or territorial flags. Invariably, these obvious mooring holes have been labeled as "blasting holes" by those responsible for informing the public of their archaeological significance, thus many have been entirely destroyed. In many cases, the sites were used as not only as boat docks, but lodging, ceremonial purposes, funerary burials, and for storage. Using sophisticated electromagnetic instruments, researchers have been able to locate the outline of structures, including longboats, beneath the ground at many sites. (See Orval D. Friedrichs books on early Vikings in the New World in the bibliography.)
Since were on the subject of Vikings, lets talk about a large runestone, resembling a Viking ballast stone, that was found near Kensington, Minnesota, by a farmer named Olaf Ohman. The "Kensington Runestone," as it is known, weighs 202 pounds and measures 6 inches thick, 16 inches wide, and 31 inches long. On November 8th, 1898, Ohman claims he was trying to remove a 40-year-old aspen tree from his property and when it finally came up the monolith was tangled in its roots. This would seem to indicate that it had been inscribed long before Ohman found it, since he was just settling the land. After he found it, and local authorities showed little interest in it, he used it as a doorstep outside of a farm building. Luckily for us, he placed it face down.
A number of years had passed, and a student from the University of Wisconsin, Hjalmar Holand, heard of the stone. When he first asked to purchase it, Ohman wanted ten dollars, but the young student could only afford five, so Ohman just gave him the stone. Holand was then able to make what appears to be an accurate translation (without the punctuation) in 1909:
"8 Goths and 22 Norwegians on exploration journey from Vineland round about the west. We had camp by [a lake with] 2 skerries 1 days journey north from this stone. We were [out] and fished one day. After we came home [found] 10 red with blood and dead. AV[e] M[aria]. Save [us] from evil."
And along the edge of the stone was inscribed: "Have 10 of [our party] by the sea to look after our ships. 14 days journey from this island. Year 1362."
It should be mentioned that some authorities believed that the stone had been forged by Ohman, but if that is indeed the case, he most surely did not profit from it. There have been a number of books that have written about the Kensington Runestone. The stone itself can still be found, eminently displayed, in the city of Alexandria, Minnesota.
There has been a number of good books written on the mysteries beneath Rock Lake. It has an interesting history, in that inventor Max Gene Nohl tested a revolutionary innovation in this small Wisconsin lake that would forever change underwater exploration. The year was 1937 and Nohl had been interested in the Rock Lake mystery since pilot Dr. Fayette Morgan reported seeing underwater structures the previous year. He decided to field-test his Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus, better known these days as S.C.U.B.A. gear, to try and confirm the report. He claims to have found a conical rock pyramid submerged in about 40 feet of water measuring about 29 feet high with an 18-foot wide base.
In more recent times, a number of other underwater structures have been discovered in this lake which resemble other pyramid-like constructions found throughout North America. Though currently unconfirmed, one of the largest underwater structures was said to measure about 50 feet by 70 feet by 25 feet. Some of the smaller structures have square corners formed from straight edges. There is evidence that smoothly-mortared stones were used in some of the pyramids, and broken clam shells and split bones were found near others, similar to articles found near Aztalan.
THE DEVILS PLAYGROUND
This one really doesnt fit into any other category, but it is so very strange that it had to be included. Bizarre things are going on at a place called Racetrack Playa, also known as the Devils Playground. In this isolated valley of the Cottonwood Mountains, at the northwest edge of Death Valley, there is an inexplicable phenomena of countless boulders, some weighing up to 600 pounds, that are being mysteriously slid across the desert floor. Measurements have shown that everything from small pebbles to large boulders are affected. The grooves range in width from a few inches to 12 feet and in length from 34 feet to more than 1,200 feet, with depths ranging from inconsequential to an inch or more.
Many of the furrows are straight, while others are curved, irregular, angular, zigzag, or in some cases a closed loop. Other phenomena of a similar nature can be found at McKittric, California; Bonnie Clair, Nevada; Nelson, Nevada; and Laguna Chapala, Baja California, Mexico. While some theories speculate that a geo-magnetic anomaly, involving a dense mass of underlying strata and the forces exerted by the rotation of the Earth are responsible, the "official" explanation is that the rocks are pushed over the frozen surface of the "dry lake" bed by strong winds.
There have been many unusual and puzzling artifacts that have been unearthed, or otherwise discovered, that do not fit into conventional theories of our geologic and historical past. While the entries in this short, if at times convoluted, report are for the most part from the United States, there are many more anomalous artifacts and archaeological evidence from sites worldwide. For those not familiar with some of the more sensational evidence that represents the earths true history a few of the top-runners are outlined below.
The discovery of the Dropa Stones back in 1938 on an archeological expedition led by Dr. Chi Pu Tei of China probably tops the list of things everyone should know about. The "stones" were found buried beneath millennia of dust in caves in the Baian-Kara-Ula mountains. Numbering several hundred stones in all, each disk measured about nine inches in diameter and had a circle cut into the center, and spiral grooves etched into the surface, like an ancient phonograph record. Artifacts found with the stone disks have been dated to about 10,000 to 12,000 years ago. Small hieroglyphics were found in the grooves that, when translated, tell of an extraordinary story of extraterrestrials, who called themselves the Dropa, who had crash-landed in the mountains of China. Reports indicate that, in some of the caves, along with the disks, were discovered the remains of the Dropa, or their descendents, and that they may have, in fact, been Chinese.
A lot of interesting technology was being developed in the world 2,000 years ago. The predecessor of a modern, everyday item, found in nearly every retail store in the world, was discovered in the ruins of a Parthian village, in what is today modern-day Iraq. The "Baghdad Battery," as it has been called, is composed of a clay jar that is five and half inches high and contains a copper cylinder that was held in place by asphalt. Inside the copper tube was a rod made of disintegrating iron. All that was needed to produce electricity was an electrolytic alkaline or acidic solution. It is believed the instrument was used for electroplating with gold. The last known location of this incredible object was a museum in Baghdad.
To the northwest of Crete lies the small island of Antikythera, an out-of-the-way place in the Mediterranean Sea. In the year 1900, sponge divers discovered a shipwreck dating from before the time of Christ in the shallow shores of this island. The ships cargo of marble and bronze statues was subsequently salvaged from the site, and among the treasures was a corroded piece of bronze. Further inspection revealed that the artifact was made from a number of gears and wheels, and it was thought to be an astronomers tool known as an astrolabe. The complexity and sophistication of the differential gears became apparent after an X-ray was taken of the object, revealing a degree of workmanship not possible until the 16th century. Writing on the case of the object indicates it was manufactured in the year 80 B.C.E.
There are other mysterious stones as well. For nearly 40 years there have been reports from mine workers of unusual stone spheres, about an inch in diameter and scored with three parallel lines around the center, that are being dug up from mines in South Africa. The "grooved spheres" come in two types, one is of a hard blue metal with specks of white, while others have been hollowed out and filled with a white spongy material. The purpose or origin of the spheres are unknown, the rock from which they are being accidentally mined is Precambrian, dating to at least 2.8 billion years old.
On the other end of the "sphere" spectrum we find the giant stone balls of Costa Rica. In the 1930s, while cutting and burning their way through an impenetrable forest workers discovered a number of stone balls of various sizes, that were nearly perfectly spherical. The largest of the spheres is eight feet in diameter and weighs an incredible 16 tons. Are they man-made? It would appear so, but even the experts are puzzled as to their origin and purpose.
And then theres the scale models of ancient aircraft that have been found. Two cases come to mind: the solid golden delta-winged "ship" found in Central America, thought to have been a childs toy over a thousand years ago, though gold was only used as a tribute to the gods in that culture. And in Egypt, where a wooden model of an airplane, six inches in length, complete with wings, a tail, and fuselage was discovered in a tomb in Saqquara in 1898. Engineers believe the objects are aerodynamically feasible, or that both designs could fly. Of special interest is that these objects both had vertical stabilizers (the upraised tail section), something that birds do not have and so we would not expect to see had their inventors not experimented with flight.
There is a term, originally coined by Charles Fort, that is used in cryptoarchaeological circles called an OOPART, or Out-Of-Place-Artifact. The term can be applied to a good number of the artifacts that fit the description in this exposé. Here are a few more OOPARTs that fall into the "last but not least" category. A number of semi-ovoid metallic tubes have been found in chalk from the Cretaceous age, ending 65 million years ago, at a mine in France. And in a report, from an unknown location in 1885, a perfect metal cube was found when breaking apart a chunk of coal. It had obviously been worked by human hands. And in 1912, workers preparing coal for an electric plant broke apart a large lump of coal and discovered an iron pot. Who knows what other mysteries lie in our hidden past.
So we have a few problems to resolve at this point. One scenario is that human beings have been around much longer than is generally accepted, and that were only just now "rediscovering" our prehistoric past. Scenario number two, that would explain many of the strange and unusual artifacts described herein, is that there have been one or more advanced civilizations with a presence here on earth in the distant past that have since left, been destroyed, or died out. The question remains as to where these "other" cultures, if they existed, may have come from, or why they were here. We must also ask whether those cultures would have resembled our own or had been inhabited by human-like beings. Either way, something unusual has been going on.
For those of us who have done serious investigation on the subject of UFOs, and in particular ancient astronauts theories, it becomes apparent that the UFO phenomenon has been with us for at least the last several thousand years, and possibly much longer. Some researchers have speculated that that these ancient visitors may be responsible for our very existence. We wont take it quite that far this time. But what if there have been extraterrestrial visits to Earth for the past 2 or 3 billion years, as some of the evidence suggests? We may be just "one stop" on an intergalactic route of the gods.
It is a strange world we live in, and it sure is nice to be part of it. Thank you for joining us on our brief journey in exploring the enigmatic mysteries and anomalous artifacts of North America.
For information on subsequent volumes, updated news, additional images and text not included in this article due to space limitations please visit www.lostartsmedia.com/mysteryofamerica.html
Only puny secrets need protection.
Big discoveries are protected by public incredulity.
Marshall McLuhan and Barrington Nevitt
1"Remains of Vanished Giants Found in State," Indianapolis News, 10 Nov 1975.
2Deseret Weekly, Salt Lake City, 14 Mar 1891.
3"Nevadas Red-Headed People Eaters," INFO Journal (International Fortean Organization, College Park, MD), no. 8, Winter-Spring 1972, pp. 28-29. Also Dorothy P Dansie, "John T. Reids Case for the Redheaded Giants," Nevada Historical Society Quarterly, Fall 1975, pp. 153-167. Also Jim Brandon, Weird America, E.P. Dutton, NY, 1978, pp 131-132.
4Stranger than Science, Frank Edwards, Ace Books, NY, 1959, p. 96. Also Jim Brandon, Weird America, E.P. Dutton, NY, 1978, p. 26.
5Stranger than Science, Frank Edwards, Ace Books, NY, 1959, p. 97.
6The Casper Star-Tribune, July 22nd and 24th, 1979. Also Carbon Country (Montana) News, 11 Nov 1926, p. 5. Also The Casper Tribune Herald, October 22, 1932. Also Frank Edwards, Stranger than Science, Ace Books, NY, 1959, p. 96. Also Jim Brandon, Weird America, E.P. Dutton, NY, 1978, p. 126.
7F. A. Barnes, "The Case of the Bones in Stone," Desert Magazine, February 1975, pp. 36-39. Also Jim Brandon, Weird America, E.P. Dutton, NY, 1978, p. 221.
8St. Paul Pioneer, 23 May 1883; 29 Jun 1888. Also St. Paul Globe, 12 Aug 1895. Also Jim Brandon, Weird America, E.P. Dutton, NY, 1978, pp 117-118.
9Robert R. Lyman, Forbidden Land as cited in "Giant Skeletons," Pursuit, vol. 6 no. 3, July 1973, pp 69-70. Also Jim Brandon, Weird America, E.P. Dutton, NY, 1978, pp 191-192.
10Stranger than Science, Frank Edwards, Ace Books, NY, 1959, pp. 118-120.
11"Where Did All the Copper Go?" INFO Journal, No. 7 (Fall-Winter 1970), pp. 26-28. Also Charles Fort, The Complete Books of Charles Fort, Dover, NY, 1976, p. 147-148. Also Jim Brandon, Weird America, E.P. Dutton, NY, 1978, pp 112-113.
12"Another Strange Mine," Info Journal, no. 11, September 1973, p. 25. Also Jim Brandon, Weird America, E.P. Dutton, NY, 1978, p. 222.
13Andrew E. Douglass, "Ancient Canals on the South-West Coast of Florida," American Antiquarian, vol. 7 (1885), pp. 277-285. Also Jim Brandon, Weird America, E.P. Dutton, NY, 1978, p. 60.
14Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, vol. 24, pp 426ff. Also Scribners Magazine, Feb 1890, pp. 235ff. Also Idaho State Historical Society. Also Jim Brandon, Weird America, E.P. Dutton, NY, 1978, pp 73-74.
15William E. DuBois, "On a Quasi Coin Reported Found in a Boring in Illinois," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 12, no. 86, 01 Dec 1871, pp. 224-228. Also Jim Brandon, Weird America, E.P. Dutton, NY, 1978, p. 82.
16Scientific American, 1851. Also Charles Fort, The Complete Books of Charles Fort, Dover, NY, 1976, p. 130. Also Jim Brandon, Weird America, E.P. Dutton, NY, 1978, p. 103.
17Hal Eberhart, "The Cogged Stones of Southern California," American Antiquity, vol. 26, no. 3, (1961), pp. 361-370. Also Jim Brandon, Weird America, E.P. Dutton, NY, 1978, pp. 28-29.
18Arizona Historical Society. Also Jim Brandon, Weird America, E.P. Dutton, NY, 1978, pp 13-14.
19Charles M. Boland, "They All Discovered America," p. 61. Also Jim Brandon, Weird America, E.P. Dutton, NY, 1978, pp. 227-228
20A. L. Rawson, "The Ancient Inscription on a Wall at Chatata, Tennessee," Transactions of the New York Academy of Science, vol. 11, 09 Nov 1891, pp. 26-28. Also Charles Fort, The Complete Books of Charles Fort, Dover, NY, 1976, p. 158. Also Jim Brandon, Weird America, E.P. Dutton, NY, 1978, pp 204-205.
21Stephen D. Peet, "A Map of Emblematic Mounds ," American Antiquarian, vol. 11 March 1889, pp. 73ff. Also Jim Brandon, Weird America, E.P. Dutton, NY, 1978, p. 79.
22New York Times, 20 Jan 1938, p. 25. Also Jim Brandon, Weird America, E.P. Dutton, NY, 1978, pp 94-95.
23O. C. Marsh, "Footprints in Nevada," American Journal of Science, vol. 126 (Jul-Dec 1883), pp. 139-140. Also Jim Brandon, Weird America, E.P. Dutton, NY, 1978, pp 130-131.
24John Green, "Fossil Tracks at Glen Rose," Pursuit, no. 36, Fall 1976, pp. 83-85. Also Jim Brandon, Weird America, E.P. Dutton, NY, 1978, pp 216-217.
25INFO Journal, No 4 (Spring 1969). pp 4-13. Also Jim Brandon, Weird America, E.P. Dutton, NY, 1978, pp. 23-24.
26Allan O. Kelley, "Erratic Boulders on Point Loma," Scientists Forum, vol. 1, part 3, January 1971, Escondido, CA, pp. 80-81. Also Jim Brandon, Weird America, E.P. Dutton, NY, 1978, p. 35.
27Quoted by INFO Journal, no. 7 (Fall/Winter 1970), p. 48. Also Jim Brandon, Weird America, E.P. Dutton, NY, 1978, p. 70.
28Ronald L. Ives, "The Cochran Coke Ovens," Journal of Arizona History, Summer 1972, pp 73-81.
29Arkansas traveler and folklorist Tom Townsend. Also Jim Brandon, Weird America, E.P. Dutton, NY, 1978, p. 15.
30E. B. Renaud, "Indian Enclosures of Colorado and New Mexico," Unpublished monograph of the Department of Anthropology, University of Denver, 1942), pp. 13-20. Also Robert K. G. Temple, The Sirius Mystery, (London: Sedgwick and Jackson, 1976), pp 147-149. Also Jim Brandon, Weird America, E.P. Dutton, NY, 1978, pp 47-48.
INDIVIDUAL WORKS CITED
"Another Strange Mine," Info Journal (International Fortean Organization, College Park, MD), no. 11, September 1973, p. 25.
F. A. Barnes, "The Case of the Bones in Stone," Desert magazine, February 1975, pp. 36-39.
Charles M. Boland, "They All Discovered America," p. 61.
Dorothy P Dansie, "John T. Reids Case for the Redheaded Giants," Nevada Historical Society Quarterly, Fall 1975, pp. 153-167. Also pp 131-132.
Andrew E. Douglass, "Ancient Canals on the South-West Coast of Florida," American Antiquarian, vol. 7 (1885), pp. 277-285.
William E. DuBois, "On a Quasi Coin Reported Found in a Boring in Illinois," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 12, no. 86, 01 Dec 1871, pp. 224-228.
Hal Eberhart, "The Cogged Stones of Southern California," American Antiquity, vol. 26, no. 3, (1961), pp. 361-370.
John Green, "Fossil Tracks at Glen Rose," Pursuit, no. 36, Fall 1976, pp. 83-85.
Ronald L. Ives, "The Cochran Coke Ovens," Journal of Arizona History, Summer 1972, pp 73-81.
Allan O. Kelley, "Erratic Boulders on Point Loma," Scientists Forum, vol. 1, part 3, January 1971, Escondido, CA, pp. 80-81.
Robert R. Lyman, Forbidden Land as cited in "Giant Skeletons," Pursuit, vol. 6 no. 3, July 1973, pp 69-70.
O. C. Marsh, "Footprints in Nevada," American Journal of Science, vol. 126 (Jul-Dec 1883), pp. 139-140.
"Nevadas Red-Headed People Eaters," INFO Journal, no. 8, Winter-Spring 1972, pp 28-29.
Stephen D. Peet, "A Map of Emblematic Mounds ," American Antiquarian, vol. 11 March 1889, pp. 73ff.
A. L. Rawson, "The Ancient Inscription on a Wall at Chatata, Tennessee," Transactions of the New York Academy of Science, vol. 11, 09 Nov 1891, pp. 26-28.
"Remains of Vanished Giants Found in State," Indianapolis News, 10 Nov 1975.
E. B. Renaud, "Indian Enclosures of Colorado and New Mexico," (unpublished monograph of the Department of Anthropology), University of Denver, 1942
"Where Did All the Copper Go?" INFO Journal, No. 7 (Fall-Winter 1970), pp. 26-28.
OTHER WORKS CITED (BY STATE)
Crittenden, Arizona, Deseret Weekly, Salt Lake City, 14 Mar 1891.
Olancha, California, INFO Journal, No 4 (Spring 1969). pp 4-13.
Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii, INFO Journal, no. 7 (Fall/Winter 1970), p. 48.
Nampa, Idaho, Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, vol. 24, pp 426ff. Also Scribners Magazine, Feb 1890, pp. 235ff.
Rockcastle County, Kentucky, New York Times, 20 Jan 1938, p. 25.
William R. Corliss, compiler, Strange Artifacts: A Sourcebook on Ancient Man, The Sourcebook Project, Glen Arm, Maryland, 1976 (from a series of sourcebooks on unusual phenomenon).
Michael Cremo, Forbidden Archeology, Bhaktivedanta Book Publishing, Los Angeles, 1993.
, Forbidden Archeologys Impact, Bhaktivedanta Book Publishing, Los Angeles, 1998.
Michael Cremo and Richard Thompson, The Hidden History of the Human Race. Govardhan Hill Publishing, Badger CA, 1994.
Frank Edwards, Stranger than Science, Ace Books, NY, 1959.
Barry Fell, America B.C., Demeter Press, NY, 1976.
Charles Fort, The Complete Books of Charles Fort, Dover, NY, 1976.
Neil Freer, God Games: What Do You Do Forever?, The Book Tree, San Diego, CA, 1 (800) 700-TREE, 1999.
, Breaking the Godspell, The Book Tree, San Diego, CA, 1 (800) 700-TREE, 1987, 2000.
Orval Friedrich, Vikings Ho!, Self-published, 1996.
, Vikings in the New World, Self-published, 1996.
Laurence Gardner, Bloodline of the Holy Grail, 1997.
, Genesis of the Grail Kings, 2000.
, Realm of the Ring Lords: The Myth and Magic of the Grail Quest, 2000.
Orville L. Hope, 6000 Years of Seafaring, Hope Press, Gastonia, NC, 1983.
Frank Joseph, Sacred Sites: A Guidebook to Sacred Centers and Mysterious Places in the United States, Llewellyn Publications, 1992.
(edited by), Sacred Sites of the West: A Guide to Mystical Centers, Hancock House Publishers, 1997.
Brad Olsen, Sacred Places: 101 Spiritual Sites Around the World, Consortium of Collective Consciousness, 2000.
Lloyd Pye, Everything You Know Is Wrong - Book One: Human Origins, Adamu Press, iUniverse, 1998.
Salvatore M. Trento, Field Guide to Mysterious Places of the West, Pruett Publishing Company, 1994.
, Field Guide to Mysterious Places of Eastern North America, Henry Holt and Company, Inc., 1997.
, Field Guide to Mysterious Places of the Pacific Coast, Henry Holt and Company, Inc., 1997.
Zecharia Sitchin, The Twelfth Planet, Avon Books, NY, 1976.
, Stairway to Heaven, Avon Books, NY, 1980.
, The Wars of Gods and Men, Avon Books, NY, 1985.
, The Lost Realms, Avon Books, NY, 1990.
, Genesis Revisited: Is Modern Science Catching Up with Ancient Knowledge, Avon Books, NY, 1991.
Gunnar Thompson, American Discovery, 1992.
Immanuel Velikovski, Worlds in Collision, Dell Publishing Co., NY, 1950.
Tédd St. Rain has had an intense interest in all things preternatural since childhood, and has been actively researching the mysterious, the metaphysical and the mythical for almost 20 years now. Born and raised in suburban Los Angeles, an author, lecturer, and videographer, he has traveled the world extensively investigating the world's ancient mysteries and enigmas. He is the owner of Lost Arts Media that publishes, markets and distributes a variety of products and services. CALL FOR OUR FREE CATALOG. LAM's mission it to provide fascinating and educational books, videos and multimedia products to help inform, enlighten and inspire humanity at large. We are also involved in document research, video production, e-books, DVD authoring, broadcasting, screenwriting, conference promotion, online services, amongst many other creative endeavors. We carry Books, Booklets, Audio, CD, Video, DVD, Music, Multimedia and other products on Ancient History, Anthropology, Archaeology, Human Origins, the Paranormal, and so much more. In compiling a research information archive from various sources, including research and public libraries, the internet, newspapers, journals, magazines, newsletters, press releases, and product literature, St. Rain has amassed nearly 20,000 pages of documentation on a variety of topics. Tédd St. Rain is available for radio, TV, and public speaking engagements on any number of subjects. He may be contacted through Lost Arts Media o Post Office Box 15026 o Long Beach, CA 90815 o 1 (800) 952-LOST o 1 (562) 596-ARTS o email@example.com o www.lostartsmedia.com
If you like my FREE ONLINE E-BOOK, please recommend me as a guest for the Coast to Coast AM Radio show by writing to Tom or George at this Email Address CoastProducer@aol.com
Also see our LINKS PAGE for other references of interest.
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We've recorded the following conferences: the X-Conferences in Washington DC, the World Explorer's Club Ancient Science and Modern Secrets Conference in Sedona, Arizona, the Pacific Northwest Ghosthunters Conference in Seattle, the Controlled Remote Viewing Conference in Concord, California, the National UFO Conferences in Hollywood, the 9/11 Truth Convergence conference in San Francisco, the UFO Crash Retrieval Conference in Las Vegas, the Tesla Technology Conference in Salt Lake City, the Ancient of Days UFOs and Abduction Conferences in Roswell, New Mexico, the New Living Expos in San Francisco, the Conscious Life Expo in Los Angeles, the Stargate Mystery School Conferences in Los Angeles, the Alternate Realities Conference in Tennessee, the Mutual UFO Network (MUFON) Annual Symposiums in Michigan and New York, the Aztec UFO Crash Symposiums in New Mexico, the Controlled America conferences in Davis and elsewhere, the Ancient Wisdom and New Science Conferences in Berkeley, the Bay Area UFO expos in Santa Clara, the Ancient Earth Mysteries conference in Laughlin, the Nikola Tesla Energy Science Conference and Exposition in Washington, D.C., and the Signs of Destiny Conferences in Tempe.
We carry Books, Booklets, Audio, CD, Video, DVD, Music, Multimedia and other products on Acting and Cinematography, Alchemy, Alternative Medicine, American History, Ancient America, Ancient Astronauts, Ancient Civilizations, Ancient History, Ancient Mysteries, Ancient Religion and Worship, Angels, Anthropology, Anti-Gravity, Archaeology, Apocrypha, Area 51, Astrology, Astronomy, Astro-Physics, Atlantis, Biblical Studies, Biology, Books on Books, Townsend Brown, Buddhism, Danny Casalaro, Children's Books, Cold Fusion, Colloidal Silver, Comparative Religions, Controlled America, Cooking and Household, Coursework and Study Guides, Craftwork and Hobbies, Crop Circles, Dictionaries and Reference, Early History, Education and Schooling, Electromagnetics, Electro-Gravity, Egyptian History, Electromagnetic Smog, Entertainment, European History, Famous People, Michael Faraday, Fatima, FBI Files Revealed, The Federal Reserve, Fluoride, Folklore and Mythology, the Freedom of Information Act, Free Energy, Freemasonry, Furniture and Decorating, Games, General History, Geology and Minerals, Ghosts, Global Manipulation, Gnosticism, Gravity and Gravity Waves, Greek History, Gyroscopic Anti-Gravity, Healing Electromagnetics, Health and Nutrition, Health Issues, Hermetic Studies, the Hidden History of Holidays, History of the Americas, HIV, Human Origins, Humor, INSLAW, John Keely, Knights Templar, Lost Cities, Lost Continents, Medieval History, Mercury Poisoning, Mesopotamian History, Mesopotamian Religion, Metaphysics, Mithraic Studies, Money and Business, Music Studies, Natural History, Novelty Books, Occultism, the Octopus, Oriental Philosophy, Painting and Drawing, Paganism, Paleontology and Prehistoric World, Paradigm Politics, the Paranormal, Pesticide Pollution, Personal Growth, Phallicism, The Philadelphia Experiment, Philosophy, Physics, Powerlines, Prophecy, Psychic Phenomena, PROMIS Software, Pyramids, Questions and Answers, Quotations, Rare Books, Religion, Remote Viewing, Remote Viewing Training Sessions, Roman History, Roswell, Walter Russell, Sasquatch, Scalar Waves, Science and Technology, SDI, John Searle, Secret Societies, Sex Worship, Short Stories, Zecharia Sitchin Studies, Smart Cards, Solar Power, Song Books, Sovereignty, Space Travel, Spiritualism, Spirituality, Sports and Athletics, Stage Magic and Tricks, Stonehenge, Story of Language, Tedd St. Rain, Sumeria, Sun Myths, Symbolism, Tachyon Fields, Nikola Tesla, Theater and Drama, Theology, Time Travel, Translations from the Past, Travel and Adventure, The Treasury, UFOs, Underground Bases, Vedic Philosophy, Wackenhut, World Control, The World Grid, World History, Writing and Authorship, Yoga, Zero Point Energy and so much more.
Presenters include Freddy Silva, Lyn Buchanan, Annette Martin, Loyd Auerbach, Paul Kimball, Ron Reger, Chuck Wade, David Pace, Peter Davenport, Marc Davenport, Lynne D. Kitei, Eric Felsson, Jose Arguelles, John Major Jenkins, Clarisse Conner, Michael Peter Langevin, John English, Allan Brown, Flordemayo, Dr. Louis Turi, William Henry, Geoff Stray, Bert Janssen, Jaime Maussan, Melinda Leslie, John Rhodes, Leah A. Haley, Michael Horn, Dr. Robin Falkov, Tricia McCannon, James Gilliland, Lloyd Pye, Katherine Pacheco, Dennis William Hauck, Patricia Wollard, Mike West, Marie DePerlarlta, Ross Allison, Jeferson Davis, Dutch Jackson, Stef Marshall, Leslie Rule, Jake, Jake Warga, Jim Hoffman, Don Paul, Jim Garrison, Byron Belistos, Robert Rabbin, Medea Bejamin, Stephen Dinan, Swami Beyonananda, Archarya S, Stephen Mehler, Greg Bishop, Mark Amaru Pinkham, Mark Kimmel, Gloria Hawker, David Perkins, Sanni, Bill Winkler, Joe Fex, Mary Munoz, Michael S. Heiser, Jim Wilhelmsen, William Alnor, David Flynn, David Sereda, Guy Malone, Jim Hickman, Lisa Davis, Joe Jordan, Larry Oja, Glen Gordon, Bruce Forrester, Jr., Tony Cocilovo, Konstantin Meyl, Kirl Chukanov, Bruce Perreault, Alan Francouer, Sonne Ward, Moray King, Robert Patterson, John Balfour, Dale Pond, Dan Davidson, Hal Fox, Paul Pantone, Jan Marwan, Vladimir Ginzburg, Thorsin Ludwig, James and Kenneth Corum, Elizabeth Rauscher, Ph.D., Ryn Raevis, Marc Seifer, Ph.D., Thomas Valone, Ph.D. Ralph Suddath, Mark Neveu, Ph.D., Jeffrey Behary, Eltjo Hasselhoff, Earle Benezet, Doug Kenyon, Jeffrey Morgan Foss, Sherry Lee Malin, Constance Clear, John Gray, Jack Canfield, Loren Coleman, Gail Ferguson, John Alexander, Ph.D. Marcia Schaefer, Brian O'Leary, Richard Boylan, Ph.D., Jason Martell, J.J. Hurtak, Robert O. Dean, Robert Perala, Ruben Uriate, Steven Marino, Paul Anderson, Colin Andrews, Dennis Balthaser, Dr. Nick Begich, William J. Birnes, Francine Blake, Carol Brouillet, Karena Bryan, Walter Bowart, Eldon Byrd, Prudence Calabrese, Grant Cameron, Dolores Cannon, David Hatcher Childress, Wendy Conners, Philip Corso Jr., Michael Cremo, Paul Davids, David W. Davis, Richard Dolan, Ann Druffel, Christopher Dunn, MUFON Field Investigator Training, Joe Firmage, Patrick Fitzhugh, Neil Freer, Stanton Friedman, Antonio Garcez, Sir Laurence Gardner, Timothy Good, Stan Gordon, John Greenewald Jr, Steven Greer, William Hamilton, Terry Hansen, Paola Harris, Jim Hickman, Betty Hill, Budd Hopkins, Linda Moulton Howe, David Jacobs, C.B. Scott Jones, Barbara Lamb, Jack "Kewaunee" Lapseritis., Don Ledger, William C. Levengood, Ted Loman, Bruce Maccabee, Mark Macy, Jim Marrs, Randy Masters, Jordan Maxwell, Drunvalo Melchizedek, Father Charles Moore, Andreas Mueller, John Nowinski, Karl Pflock, Nick Pope, Raphaela Pope, Steve Purkable, Nick Redfern, Peter Robbins, Jeff Sainio, Dr. Michael Salla, Richard Sauder, John Schuessler, Frank Scully, Esen Sekerkarar, Jerry Smith, Dr. Chet Snow, Tédd St. Rain, Mary Ann Stratton, Chris Styles, Deborah Taj Anapol, Nancy Talbott, Albert Taylor, Richard Thieme, Hal Treacy, Transdimensional Systems, David Twichell,Travis Walton, Cheryl Welsh, John Anthony West, Jeffrey Wilson, Dr. Robert Wood, Ryan Wood, Dan Wright and many more.